Technology Transfer - CCD X-ray Imaging Converters
An X-ray camera based on novel CCD (Charged Coupled Device) imaging
converters is developed by the Max-Planck-Institut for future X-ray
satellites, as the European XMM
observatory and the German ABRIXAS
small-satellite. This pn-CCD X-ray detector should reach a good spectral
and high time resolution in connection with a nearly perfect efficiency.
For this purpose the
has established an own solid state laboratory (Halbleiterlabor - HLL).
The detectors developed there open the chance for medical and technical
The MPI/MPE semiconductor laboratory (HLL) is a research laboratory
for semiconductor radiation detectors. It was founded in 1991 by
the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik and the Max-Planck-Institut
für extraterrestrische Physik to supply them with devices for
their experiments in High Energy Physics and X-ray Astronomy.
The main activities at the Halbleiterlabor are currently the
development and production of micro-strip detectors and of pn-CCDs.
Micro-strip detectors are needed for the HERA-B detector at DESY and
the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker at CERN.
The pn-CCD's will work as imaging X-ray sensors on board of two space
missions: the European XMM and the German ABRIXAS satellite.
The Halbleiterlabor has already delivered pad detectors for CELIAS on
the SOHO satellite.
The 6 cm × 6 cm large pn-CCD will be the heart of
the EPIC/XMM camera. The picture shows the twelve chips mounted and
the connections to the integrated preamplifiers. The quantum efficiency
is greater than 80% over the whole XMM energy range of
200 eV to 12 keV. It is extremely radiation-resistant,
has a good energy resolution, and owns an excellent time resolution.
The development and production is realized by the MPE.
The ESA X-ray satellite XMM and the ROSAT successor ABRIXAS
will be equipped with solid state detectors (X-ray CCDs).
The picture shows the expendable electronics for the voltage supply
and reading of the twelve CCDs of the pn-camera for XMM and ABRIXAS.
The breakthroughs in the printed circuit board opens the view to the
backside of the CCD.