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Cosmic rays and gamma rays in the Galaxy

Fermi-LAT skymapping tool

Generates HealPix intensity skymaps from datasets generated by the Fermi-LAT Fermitools package.
Available at gitlab


New April 2020. GALPLOT package for plotting GALPROP results.
Available at gitlab


Explanatory Supplement
Public Version
Forum etc external link

GALPROP updates

12 Nov 2013: GALPROP updates, including synchrotron and free-free emission, accurate propagation scheme, new convection models, anisotropic diffusion, primary positrons, free-escape boundary conditions, new hadronic gamma-ray production models, etc.

Downloaded 830 times as of Apr 2017.

New 17 Apr 2017: GALPROP v54 now hosted under gitlab, which will used for further developments.

Accurate scheme for GALPROP propagation, upgrade to public version

New 9 Sept 2013. Available at sourceforge

Conversion of GALPROP cosmic-ray files into format for viewing and plotting with fv

28 Sept 2013: V2 indexing change. Available at sourceforge

Synchrotron routines in C++

Available at sourceforge

Bremsstrahlung routines in C++ NEW 16 Apr 2012

A C++ version of the public GALPROP routines, with added features to compute the gamma-ray emissivity either differential or in user-defined bands. A sample user program will be provided which can be edited to provide the required functionality.
Version 1.0 16 Apr 2012
Also get it from sourceforge

Stellarics: Solar and stellar inverse Compton package

A program to compute inverse Compton scattering from the solar heliosphere. Can also be used for other stars, and includes general-purpose routines for inverse Compton scattering e.g. for interstellar emission. Package contains C++ routines, build instructions and description. Output is FITS table format, in various forms (spectra, profiles), and as idl commands.
The documentation is basic so far, a more extensive description with examples will follow shortly.

v2 includes inverse Compton energy loss routines for any given radiation field, including dE/dt and mean fractional energy loss, and checks against analytical formulae.
v3 includes an option for a logarithmic grid in angle from the sun to better resolve the rapid variation near the sun while still maintaining the full angular range to 180 degrees. idl plotting output now produces quality plots for all angles and energies. It also has a document with sample spectra and profiles, and a sample output FITS file.
Includes a nice derivation of the inverse Compton formula for the general anisotropic case.
Latest version (2018) in gitlab

(Original distributions : Version 3 12 Nov 2012 , Version 2 21 Feb 2012 , Version 1 4 Jan 2012 )

Gamma-ray production using Huang et al matrices NEW 13 Apr 2012 OBSOLETE!

Cosmic-ray hadronic interaction matrices for gamma-ray and other secondaries for an interstellar medium target were made available here as described in Huang et al. Astroparticle Physics, 27, 429 (2007). These require significant effort in practice to compute emissivities for given input spectra. To supplement these matrices I provide here a C++ class which reads the matrices, interpolates on user-defined particle and gamma-ray energy grids, and computes the gamma-ray emissivity either differential or in user-defined bands. A sample user program is provided which can be edited to provide the required functionality. This is an example using this particular physics model; others will follow.
Version 1.0 13 Apr 2012
Also get it from sourceforge

HealPix conversion routines NEW Dec 2011

Routines for converting GALPROP-generated HEALPix skymaps to a compatible format which can be plotted by Aladin (v7), available from CDS. THis allows free rotation of the sphere, avoiding the distortions of Aitoff and other projections often used. It is a very practical way to view and prepare skymap plots of GALPROP output.
GALPROP outputs a spectrum per HealPix pixel, while Aladin requires each energy to be stored as a column. A conversion is required to make GALPROP skymaps viewable in Aladin. performs this conversion, outputs both the original energy bins and energy-integrated spectra, and in addition convolves with a user-defined Gaussian both in energy bins (from v1.1) and energy-integrated. Also outputs the spherical harmonic decomposition as HealPix, per energy bin. Version 1.2 has an option to divide by a second HealPix file, for example to give intensity if file 1 is counts and file 2 is exposure.
Details of of building and using the routine are at the top of the file. It requires the HealPix C++ library, available from JPL. It has been tested with g++ and intel compilers. It works for pion-decay, bremsstrahlung, inverse Compton (total) and synchrotron skymaps. In Aladin, select Edit -> Properties and choose the energy column from Available Fields, and Used projection SINUS. Choose Frame=Gal. NB Aladin 7.074 had a problem with the selection bar for more than about 20 columns; this has being corrected in Aladin 7.075 now available from CDS.
Bug reports, suggestions for enhancements etc, are welcome.
New 27 Sept 2013: a routine to convert back from columns to vector format (in fact converts both ways), also with energy extension for compatibility. 21 Nov 2013: more robust version, also converts Fermi-LAT Science Tools HealPix events files.
Get it from sourceforge

Milky Way Multiwavelength Luminosity

Complete tables of differential and integral gamma-ray luminosity, and also synchrotron and optical/IR, from Global cosmic-ray related luminosity and energy budget of the Milky Way :: Strong et al. (2010) ApJL, 722, L58 ........ ApJL version ....... Complete model tables

Cosmic ray database

An extensive compilation of data from the literature including spectra of elements, isotopes, isotopic ratios, electrons, positrons, antiprotons.
The format is described in detail at the end of the data file. Please note the disclaimer written in the file.

Cosmic ray database file, last updated 02 Aug 2011 with PAMELA Helium data point corrected
Also get it from sourceforge

The database is updated as new data, corrections etc. are made. Feedback, errors, suggestions and offers of data are welcome. Current information can be found on the GALPROP forum

Database Revision History
Aug 02 2011 PAMELA Helium data point 10.98 GeV corrected GCR_data_11.dat
June 21 2011 AMS01 proton data point for 1.15-1.54 GeV corrected GCR_data_10.dat
May 16 2011 CREAM Helium spectrum energies corrected GCR_data_9.dat
April 11 2011 PAMELA pbar typo corrected GCR_data_8.dat
April 04 2011 CREAM proton and Helium spectra. PAMELA Helium spectra: error in Z.A corrected. GCR_data_8.dat
March 24 2011 PAMELA proton and Helium spectra. GCR_data_7.dat
March 23 2011 PAMELA electron spectrum. GCR_data_6.dat
Sept 14 2010 corrected typo in PAMELA pbar data
August 25 2010 added PAMELA pbar data, updated Fermi-LAT electron reference to published version. GCR_data_5.dat
Jan 15 2010 added new PRELIMINARY Fermi-LAT electron data, including low-energies. GCR_data_4.dat
Nov 9 2009 update added ISOMAX 10Be/9Be
July 17 2009 update adds more ACE radioactive isotope energies, and corrects their (Z.A)
June 2 2009 update corrects the HEAO3 references, adds ATIC-2 and CREAM B/C data
Dec 2008 update includes the 2008 versions of ATIC, BETS, PPB-BETS and HESS electron spectra, and PAMELA e+/e+- and pbar/p.
May 5 2009 update includes the Fermi-LAT electron measurements.
May 22 2009 update includes the HESS low-energy electron spectrum from 2009, both as data points and systematic error band.

A C++ class to read and select the data: - updated 23 Nov 2012 .... ..... GCR_data.h
Also get it from sourceforge
A Python interface with plotter is provided by Luca Baldini (Pisa), and can be found here, thanks !

A paper describing the database was presented at the ICRC 2009, and can be found here .
Abstract ID: 626
Title: A Galactic cosmic-ray database
Authors: A.W. Strong, I.V. Moskalenko
Session: OG.1.1: Direct measurements on primary cosmic rays
Abstract: Despite 100 years of cosmic-ray measurements there seems to have been no attempt (known to us) to collect these data systematically for use by the CR community. The result is that everyone makes their own collection as required, a big duplication of effort, and error-prone. Therefore we have started a project to place published Galactic CR data in a database available online. It currently addresses energies up to 100 TeV, including elemental spectra, secondary/primary nuclei ratios, antiprotons and positrons. It is updated regularly as data appears in the literature. Where necessary data is obtained from the authors (e.g. when papers contain plots but no tables). It is supported by access software. The community is encouraged to participate by providing data, pointing out errors or omissions, and suggestions for improvements. It is available at and hosted by the GALPROP website

- AWS 2 June 2009

GALPROP parameter files

54_77Xvarh7S model used in some Fermi-LAT papers

GALPROP Explanatory Supplement for explanation of parameters

EGRET data files






Determining EGRET's Efficiency Scaling Factors: internal report by D.L. Bertsch (2000), provided by Seth Digel (NEW)

Published galprop models as FITS files (see papers for descriptions):

fits_44_500180.tar ---- from---- Diffuse Galactic continuum gamma rays. A model compatible with EGRET data and cosmic-ray measurements :: Strong, A.W., Moskalenko, I.V., Reimer, O. ApJ, 613, 962

fits_44_500190.tar ---- from---- Diffuse Galactic continuum gamma rays. A model compatible with EGRET data and cosmic-ray measurements :: Strong, A.W., Moskalenko, I.V., Reimer, O. (2004) ApJ, 613, 962

fits_45_600202.tar ---- from---- The distribution of cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, gamma-rays and the gradient in the CO-to-H2 relation:: Strong, A.W., Moskalenko, I.V. Reimer, O., Digel, S., Diehl, R. (2004) A&A Letters, 422, L47 ,

fits_47_600203a.tar ---- from---- Gamma-ray continuum emission from the inner Galactic region as observed with INTEGRAL/SPI :: Strong, A.W., Diehl, R., Halloin, H., Schoenfelder, V., Bouchet, L., Mandrou, P., Lebrun, F., Terrier, R. (2005) A&A 444, 495

53_6102029RG SPI model ---- from ---- Inverse Compton Origin of the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray emission from the Galactic ridge :: T.A. Porter, I.V. Moskalenko, A.W. Strong, E. Orlando, L. Bouchet (2008) Astrophysical Journal

Other galprop runs as FITS files



53_6102229RG MILAGRO model, posted 14 Feb 2008

test sample for VO

Other galdef files:

new: 54_77Xvarh7S used in some Fermi papers

new: galdef_49_6002029RE: optimized model---- from---- Discovery of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy:: (2007) Abdo et al. Astrophys.J. 658 (2007) L33-L36

new: galdef_49_5001809RE: conventional model---- from---- Discovery of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy:: (2007) Abdo et al. Astrophys.J. 658 (2007) L33-L36

Other (very old data)


Other (very) old galprop-related material:
A continuing program of modelling cosmic-ray propagation in the Galaxy and comparison with all kinds of observational data, with special emphasis on gamma rays. This site provides material related to this project including publications, programs and datasets.

This program is called galprop . Originally work was concentrated on a diffusive model in 3D (R,z,p) with full momentum dependence. Nuclei and electrons are computed for different halo sizes, using a numerical solution of the diffusion equation. The observed distribution of gas in the Galaxy is used, and the interstellar radiation field has been recomputed using recent information from e.g. IRAS, COBE. Observational data constraining the model are B/C ratio, 10Be/Be, the directly measured electron spectrum, diffuse Galactic gamma rays, and non-thermal radio.

From 1997-2000 the code was written in fortran90 and was extended to include

  • reacceleration
  • convection
  • secondary positron and electron production
  • a full pion-decay gamma ray calculation
  • inverse Compton on anisotropic radiation fields
  • bremsstrahlung on neutral and ionized gas
  • antiprotons

    Now available (July 2003) : C++ [Version 42.2], full 3D
    Please contact the authors via email to obtain it.
    and read the galprop C++ Version Explanatory Supplement and usage details

    The propagation method is fully described in Propagation of cosmic-ray nucleons in the Galaxy:: Strong A.W., Moskalenko I.V, (1998) ApJ 509 , 212

    Extensive results for gamma rays can be found in Diffuse continuum gamma rays from the Galaxy:: Strong A.W., Moskalenko I.V., Reimer, O. (2000) ApJ 537, 763

    For antiprotons and gamma rays see Diffuse Galactic gamma ray,s cosmic-ray nucleons and antiprotons:: Strong A.W., Moskalenko I.V, Reimer O. (1998) A&A Lett 338 , L75-L78 ....... SISSA:astro-ph/9808084

    Work on electrons and positrons is in Production and propagation of cosmic-ray positrons and electrons:: Moskalenko I.V, Strong A.W. (1998) ApJ 493, 694

    and more recent results in various papers here

    Available DATASETS include

  • cosmic ray primary protons, Helium, Carbon (R,z,p)
  • cosmic ray secondary B, 10Be, Be (R,z,p)
  • cosmic ray electrons (R,z,p)
  • cosmic ray secondary positrons (R,z,p)
  • cosmic ray secondary electrons (R,z,p)
  • cosmic ray secondary antiprotons (R,z,p)
  • bremsstrahlung emissivity per atom (R,z,E)
  • inverse Compton volume emissivity (R,z,E)
  • inverse Compton gamma-ray skymaps (l,b,E)
  • synchrotron skymaps (l,b,frequency)
  • total gamma-ray skymaps (l,b,E) (not yet available)
  • interstellar radiation field (R,z, wavelength)
  • dark matter positron Green's functions


    galprop fortran90 f90 SOFTWARE Version 20 (last version!) .......(Since we like to keep track of who uses this code please send a mail to AWS to get access rights)

    galprop f90 Version User Manual

    Other sites:
  • Transport Collaboration

    AWS home page

    Synchrotron map, total intensity 20140306

    Synchrotron map, Stokes Q 20140320

    Synchrotron map, Stokes U 20140320

    Last update 20 Mar 2014