- The angular momentum distribution of z~1−3 star-forming galaxies
- The mass budget of early star-forming galaxies from KMOS3D
- Consistent evolution of metallicity and metallicity gradients from z~2.7 to z~0.6
- Successful start for the KMOS3D survey
- Widespread AGN-driven outflows in the most massive z~1−2.5 star-forming galaxies
- Bulge growth and quenching since z = 2.5
- Evidence for gravitational quenching from SINS/zC-SINF
- The nature of dispersion-dominated galaxies at high redshift
- Resolved star formation patterns at 0.7 < z < 1.5
- Smoother stellar mass maps and the longevity of star-forming clumps in high redshift galaxies
- Short-lived star-forming clumps in cosmological simulations of z ~ 2 disks: the impact of strong feedback from massive stars
- SINS/zC-SINF reveals the roots of vigorous star formation-driven gas outflows at z ~ 2
- Galaxy structure in the star formation rate – Mass plane from z ~ 2.5 till today
- Dynamics and evolution of giant star-forming clumps at z ~ 2
- Pilot HST near-IR study:Stellar properties of clumps in z ~ 2 disks
- Pilot HST near-IR study:Rest-frame optical morphologies of SINS galaxies
- Mapping the physical conditions of the ionized gas: spatially-resolved line ratios reveal the excitation mechanism and gas-phase abundances of high z star-forming galaxies
- SINS: Largest survey of Hα kinematics and star formation at z ~ 2
- Stacking SINS: broad emission lines revealed in high z star-forming galaxies
- Stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation: first empirical determination of the relation at z ~ 2
- Millenium Simulation and observations: the role of secular evolution at high redshift
- From rings to bulges: evidence for rapid secular evolution at z ~ 2
- Kinemetry at high redshift: confirmation of a majority of rotating disks among SINS galaxies
- First comparison of dynamical and star formation properties of galaxy samples at z ~ 1.4 – 3.4
- Detailed anatomy of a young massive star-forming disk at redshift z = 2.38
- First results: dynamical evidence for large massive rotating disks at z ~ 2
- Recent Results of the MPE IR/SUbmm Group
- The PHIBSS2 pages for highlights from our IRAM programs on the molecular gas in distant galaxies
THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION OF z~1−3 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
(Top) Example of a z~1 galaxy observed in KMOS3D: HST IJH bands color map, KMOS Hα flux, velocity, velocity dispersion maps, and major axis velocity and dispersion profiles. (Bottom left) Angular momentum parameter distribution from modeling the data assuming exponential baryonic disks in NFW dark matter halos neglecting or accounting for adiabatic contraction (AC), and without AC but accounting for deviations from a pure disk profile for the galaxies. The distributions are log-normal, with a mean value ~0.037 and dispersion in logarithmic units of ~0.2 dex. (Bottom right) Angular momentum parameter vs stellar or gas mass surface density within the half-light radius R1/2 corrected for the redshift evolution of galaxy sizes, and with stellar mass surface density in the inner 1 kpc.
The angular momentum links galaxies to their host dark matter halos and contains the imprint of their baryonic mass assembly history. Exploiting the high quality, spatially-resolved Hα kinematics of a representative subset of 360 log(M*/M☉)~9.3–11.8 z~1–3 star-forming galaxies from our KMOS3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys, obtained with the near-IR multi-object KMOS and AO-assisted single-object SINFONI integral field spectrographs at the Very Large Telescope, we derived for the first time robustly the angular momentum distribution of massive star-forming galaxies around the peak epoch of cosmic star formation. The inferred halo scale angular momentum distribution of the galaxies is consistent with the theoretical prediction for their dark matter halos in terms of mean spin parameter 〈λ〉~0.037 and dispersion σ(log λ)~0.2. Spin parameters correlate with disk size and stellar surface density but do not depend significantly on halo mass, stellar mass, or redshift. Our data support the long-standing assumption that, on average, the specific angular momentum of disks reflects that of their dark matter halos (jd=jDM). The weak correlation between λ×(jd/jDM) and stellar surface density in the inner 1 kpc suggests that internal processes lead to "compaction" and dense core formation inside massive high-z disks. The analysis of our sample further yields an average stellar disk-to-dark matter mass ratio of ~2%, consistent with abundance matching results. Including the molecular gas, the total baryonic disk-to-dark matter mass ratio is ~5% for halos near 1012 M☉, which corresponds to 31% of the cosmologically available baryons, implying that high-redshift disks are strongly baryon dominated.
These results will appear in:
Burkert, A., et al. 2016, ApJ, in press (arXiv:1510.03262)
THE MASS BUDGET IN EARLY STAR-FORMING DISKS FROM KMOS3D
(Left) Comparison of stellar and dynamical mass, and baryonic and dynamical mass. Here, the baryonic mass estimate accounts for the stellar content as well as molecular gas inferred from state-of-the-art scaling relations based on CO and dust observations (from Genzel et al. 2015). (Bottom) Stellar mass fractions correlate with stellar mass surface density. Qualitatively similar relations are observed for the baryonic mass fractions, also as a function of gas and total dynamical mass surface densities, and follow from the self-consistent modeling of stars, gas and dark matter in a ΛCDM context by the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamical simulation (e.g., Vogelsberger et al. 2014; Genel et al. 2015).
We exploited our deep integral-field spectroscopic observations from KMOS3D to dynamically constrain the mass budget of 240 star-forming disks at 0.6<z<2.6. Our sample consists of massive (≳ 109.8M⊙) galaxies with sizes Re ≳ 2 kpc. By contrasting the observed velocity and velocity dispersion profiles to dynamical models, we find that on average the stellar content contributes about 32%, and the total (stellar + gas) baryonic content about 56% of the dynamical mass budget. Nearly all disks at z > 2 are strongly baryon-dominated within their half-light radius. Substantial object-to-object variations in both stellar and baryonic mass fractions are observed, correlating most strongly with measures of surface density. Our findings can be interpreted as more extended disks probing further (and more compact disks probing less far) into the dark matter halos that host them.
These results will appear in: Wuyts, S., et al. 2016, ApJ, submitted (arXiv:1603.03432)
CONSISTENT EVOLUTION OF METALLICITY AND METALLICITY GRADIENTS FROM z~2.6 TO z~0.6
(Top) Mass-metallicity relationship in three redshift bins derived from the integrated [NII]/Hα line ratio, using the Pettini & Pagel (2004) calibration. The data are shown for stacked spectra of star-forming galaxies binned in stellar mass from KMOS3D (large black and blue symbols) and SINS/zC-SINF+LUCI (large orange symbols). Small grey dots show individial measurements from KMOS3D. Excluding galaxies with an AGN (shown with diamonds) reduces the sensitivity at high masses but otherwise results in similar relationships. The dotted line in all panels shows the z~0.8 relationship by Kewley & Ellison (2008). In the middle panel, the dashed line shows the relationship derived from the FMOS survey at z~1.6 by Zahid et al. (2014). In the right panel, the different dashed lines plot those derived at z~2.3 from Erb et al. (2006), Steidel et al. (2014; KBSS survey), and Sanders et al. (2015; MOSDEF survey).
(Right) The inferred metallicity gradients from resolved [NII]/Hα radial profiles from KMOS3D (black symbols) are on average flat (as found in previous studies with much smaller and more biased samples) and consistent with theoretical expectations when strong feedback is involved, based on numerical simulations (colored lines; from Pilkington et al. 2012 based on Rahimi et al. 2011; Kobayashi & Nakasato 2012; Few et al. 2012; Gibson et al. 2013).
Using the [NII]λ6584/Hα ratio as probe of the gas-phase oxygen abundance in over 400 galaxies representative of the bulk of the star-forming population from our KMOS3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys with KMOS and SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope, and LUCI sample at the Large Binocular Telescope, we constructed statistically robust mass-metallicity relationships determined consistently from the same indicator over a wide redshift range spanning z=0.6–2.7. We found no significant dependence of the inferred metallicity on star formation rate (SFR) at fixed redshift and mass; this result, most significant for the
These results will appear in: Wuyts, E., et al. 2016, ApJ, submitted (arXiv:1603.01139)
Earlier results based on the 1st-year KMOS3D data, and the SINS-zC-SINF and LBT/LUCI surveys appeared in: Wuyts, E., et al. 2014, ApJ, 789, 40
SUCCESSFUL START FOR THE KMOS3D SURVEY
(Left) Hα velocity fields for 250 galaxies at z~0.9 and z~2.2 from our KMOS3D survey. The velocity fields are shown on the same angular scale, and blue to red colors correspond to blueshifted to redshifted velocities relative to the systemic velocity of each source. The galaxies are plotted within 0.1 dex of their location in the stellar mass − star formation rate (SFR) plane, where the SFRs are normalized to that of the main sequence ("MS") at log(M*/M☉) = 10.5, and at the median z=0.9 and 2.2 for the galaxies in the 0.7<z<1.1 and 1.9<z<2.7 intervals (observed in the YJ and K bands, respectively). A majority of star-forming galaxies are disks, reflected in their smooth monotonically varying velocity gradients. Several resolved disks are even uncovered among the sub-main sequence population at high masses.
Taking advantage of the new and efficient near-IR 24-IFU KMOS instrument, built by a consortium involving MPE, we began in November 2013 the KMOS3D survey, an ambitious and highly successful 75-night GTO program jointly led by a team from MPE IR/Submm, MPE OPINAS, and USM. KMOS3D is mapping the Hα+[NII]+[SII] emission of 600+ mass-selected galaxies at z ~ 0.6 – 2.7. The survey is carried out in well-studied extragalactic fields with extensive multi-wavelength data, including the far-IR Herschel PEP survey led by our group and high-resolution optical/near-IR grism and imaging data from the 3D-HST/CANDELS HST Treasury programs. KMOS3D is designed to provide an unbiased census from deep integrations (~ 5h – 25h) of the same spectral diagnostics resolved on seeing-limited scales of 4 – 5 kpc, over a wide range of galaxy parameters and 5 Gyrs of cosmic time. The strategy is uniquely enabling faint line emission mapping in individual objects and pushing IFU studies into new regimes such as lower mass main sequence star-forming galaxies, and high-mass sub-main sequence galaxies in the process of quenching. Altogether, KMOS3D spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (log [M*/M☉] ~ 9.5 – 11.5) and three orders of magnitude in SFR relative to the main sequence (SFR/SFRMS ~ 0.01 – 10).
KMOS3D now confirmed robustly our earlier results from SINS/zC-SINF on the kinematics and structure of high-z star-forming galaxies. The dynamical support of at least 70% of all z ~ 1 – 3 massive star-forming galaxies is dominated by ordered disk rotation, unlike what would be expected in the case of frequent (major) merging. The high-z disks differ however significantly from nearby spiral galaxies: the measured large local random motions from Hα emission (σ0 ≳ 25 km/s) reveal turbulent ionized gas disks. The disk velocity dispersion increases with redshift as σ0 ∝ (1+z), in line with expectations for gas-rich disks and the observed evolution in cold gas mass fractions.
By targeting the same spectral diagnostics of homogeneously selected samples, observed and analyzed in the same way,
KMOS3D is providing the most consistent IFU study of the evolution of resolved kinematics, star formation, and warm ISM properties of z~0.7 - 2.7 galaxies.
The KMOS3D survey design and strategy, and 1st-year results appeared in:
Wisnioski, E., et al. 2015, ApJ, 799, 209
WIDESPREAD AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS IN THE MOST MASSIVE z~1−2.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
(Top left) The stacked spectrum of the central regions of log(M*/M☉) > 10.9 galaxies at z~0.7−2.7 from our KMOS3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys shows, at high S/N, the broad (FWHM ~ 500−2000 km/s) emission component in Hα, [NII], and [SII] associated with AGN-driven outflows. It contrasts with the stacked spectrum of the outer disk regions of the same galaxies, which exhibits a weaker and narrower (FWHM ~ 400 km/s) broad emission component from star formation-driven outflows. (Bottom left) For five of the six log(M*/M☉) > 10.9 SINS/zC-SINF galaxies with deep AO-assisted SINFONI observations at ~ 0.2″ resolution, the broad emission originates primarily from the center, where a stellar bulge is seen in the rest-optical light and derived stellar mass distribution. The nuclear broad emission is resolved in most cases and implies an extent of 2−3 kpc. For BX610, the broadest outflow emission is seen around the center; strong but narrower outflow emission is also detected at the location of the bright star-forming "clump" to the south-west. For each galaxy, a pair of images is shown: the left one shows the rest-optical stellar continuum light and star formation (observed H band map from HST or extracted from the SINFONI data in red colors, HST J band map in blue colors when available, and narrow star formation-dominated Hα line emission from SINFONI in green colors), and the right one shows the same H band and narrow Hα maps (in red and green, respectively) with the broad, outflow-dominated Hα+[NII] emission component overlaid in white contours. (Top right) Variations in broad component velocity FWHM with galaxy stellar mass for the stacked spectra of the inner 2−3 kpc (large circles and red-shaded area) and outer disk regions (squares and green-shaded area) of our z ~ 0.7−2.7 star-forming galaxies. Spectra were stacked per mass bin and separately for galaxies with specific star formation rate above (red circles and dark-green squares) and below (blue circles and light green squares) the the main sequence. Measurements from individual nuclear spectra with best S/N are overplotted at star symbols; the three galaxies dominated by BLR emission are labeled in the plot, and excluded from the stacks. The onset of the broad nuclear emission associated with AGN-driven outflows is very sharp towards high masses, while star formation-driven outflows with more modest velocities are detected across disks at all masses. (Bottom right) The incidence of broad nuclear emission (red circles) increases sharply above log(M*/M☉) ~ 10.9, reaching ~2/3 at the highest masses. Although the fraction of AGN among our samples (yellow stars) or in the general galaxy population at similar redshifts in the GOODS and COSMOS extragalactic survey fields (grey- and green-shaded polygons), the frequency is < 50%. The nuclear outflow phenomenon thus has a higher duty cycle than the highly variable AGN emission.
Following the detection of powerful star formation-driven ionized gas outflows originating throughout the disk regions and especially around intensely star-forming clumps in our z~2 SINS/zC-SINF sample, new
observations with SINFONI+AO and KMOS uncovered distinct high-velocity outflows in the centers of the most massive but
otherwise normal star-forming galaxies. With a FWHM ~ 500−2000 km/s seen in Hα as well as in forbidden
[NII]λλ6548,6584 and [SII]λλ6716,6731 line emission, elevated [NII]/Hα ratio > 0.5, and an extent of 2−3 kpc derived from
five sources with high resolution AO-assisted observations, this broad emission component is most plausibly originating
from AGN-driven outflows. The frequency of these nuclear outflows rises sharply at
log(M*/M☉) ~ 10.9, reaching 2/3 above this mass.
These star-forming galaxies were selected based on mass and on their location around the main sequence of star-forming
galaxies, rather than by the presence of an AGN. In fact, <50% of these galaxies are classified as hosting an AGN from
classical X-ray, optical, IR, and radio indicators, suggesting the nuclear outflows have a higher duty cycle than the highly
variable AGN activity. The typical high inferred mass outflow rates (dMout/dt > SFR) and momentum
deposition rates (vout×dMout/dt ~ 20×L/c), together with the presence of massive bulges, and with evidence for suppressed star formation and gravitational quenching
in the inner 2−3 kpc of half of the galaxies make a compelling case that these nuclear winds play an important role in
clearing the central regions of gas prior to quenching.
These results appeared in:
Förster Schreiber, N.M., et al. 2014, ApJ, 787, 37
Genzel, R., et al. 2014, ApJ, 796, 7
BULGE GROWTH AND QUENCHING SINCE z = 2.5
Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five fields part of the HST CANDELS imaging survey, and accurate redshift information provided by the 3D-HST grism survey in the same areas, we investigated the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 1010 M⊙, spanning the redshift range 0.5<z<2.5. For the first time, we fitted two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. The results confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observed an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 1011 M⊙. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrated that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.
These results appeared in: Lang, P., et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 11
EVIDENCE FOR GRAVITATIONAL QUENCHING FROM SINS/zC-SINF
(Left) Integrated Hα linemaps of 19 well-resolved star-forming galaxies from our SINS/zC-SINF AO sample with deep on-source integrations. The galaxies are plotted at their location in the stellar mass vs star formation rate (SFR) plane, on the same angular scale and with colors scaling linearly with surface brightness; the FWHM angular resolution of these maps is ≈ 0.24″. The white solid line shows the location of the "main sequence" of z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies assuming a slope of unity, and the dashed lines indicate its 2σ scatter (± 0.6 dex in log[SFR]). Many galaxies exhibit ring-like distributions in Hα, especially frequent towards more massive galaxies. In combination with the SINFONI kinematic maps and existing HST J and H-band maps at similar resolution, the data are indicative of the presence of increasingly massive bulges and suppressed star formation in the central few kiloparsecs of the more massive galaxies. (Right) The derived radial profiles of the Toomre Q parameter of the galaxies, color-coded as a function of dynamical mass as follows: log(Mdyn/M☉) = 10.36−10.50 in blue, 10.68−10.93 in green, 11.04−11.28 in orange, and 11.34−11.41 in red. The grey-shaded interval corresponds to the typical resolution element for the sample. All profiles exhibit an increase in Q towards their central regions, with values significantly in excess of the threshold around unity, the more so for the most massive galaxies, suggesting that their bulges may stabilize the gas against gravitational collapse in the inner few kpcs.
We analyzed the radial distributions of Hα surface brightness, stellar mass surface density, and dynamical mass at
≈ 2 kpc resolution in 19 z ~ 2 star-forming disks with deep AO-assisted SINFONI imaging spectroscopy from our
SINS/zC-SINF survey. From the combination of the kinematic maps and the molecular gas mass surface densities
inferred from the star formation rate distributions, we derived the radial profiles in Toomre Q parameter for
these main sequence star-forming galaxies, which span about two orders of magnitude in stellar mass
(log[M*/M☉] = 9.6−11.5). In more than half of these
galaxies, the Hα distributions cannot be fit by a centrally peaked distribution, such as an exponential, but are better
described by a ring or the combination of a ring and an exponential. At the same time, the kinematics data indicate the
presence of a mass distribution more centrally concentrated than a single exponential disk component for 5 of the 19
galaxies. The resulting Q profiles are centrally peaked for all, and significantly exceed unity there for ~3/4 of the
galaxies. The occurrence of Hα rings and of large nuclear Q values appears to be more common for the
more massive star-forming galaxies. While the sample is small and biased to larger sizes, and there remain uncertainties
and caveats, the observations are consistent with the "gravitational quenching" scenario in which cloud fragmentation and global star formation are secularly suppressed in gas-rich high-z disks from the inside-out, as the central
stellar mass density of the disks grows.
These results appeared in Genzel, R., et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 75
THE NATURE OF DISPERSION-DOMINATED GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT
(Left) Hα linemaps of the 34 star-forming galaxies from our SINS/zC-SINF AO sample. The top two rows contain the dispersion-dominated objects (with ratio of intrinsic rotation velocity to velocity dispersion vrot / σ0 below ~ 1) and the rest are rotation-dominated. The maps are all plotted on the same angular scale. The typical FWHM resolution of the maps presented here is 0.2 – 0.3 arcsec (indicated with the red circle). The dispersion-dominated galaxies tend to be more compact than the rotation-dominated galaxies. (Middle and right) Dependence of vrot and σ0 on the Hα half-light radius R1/2. The measurements for the SINS/zC-SINF galaxies (blue circles) are combined with those of other z ~ 1 – 2.5 samples observed mostly using AO (Law et al. 2009, 2012 and Wright et al. 2009, red squares; Wisnioski et al. 2011, green circles; Swinbank et al. 2012, cyan upside-down triangles; Épinat et al. 2009, 2012 and Lemoine-Busserolle & Lamareille 2010, black triangles and crosses). The large dark grey symbols show the median values per size bins. The strong trend of velocity versus size can be well fit by a linear relation: log(vrot)= 0.62 x log(R1/2) + 1.9. In contrast, the velocity dispersion does not appear to show a significant trend. Thus the trend for smaller galaxies to be dispersion-dominated is in part due to the combination of a possible floor of velocity dispersion, and a linear increase of rotation velocity with size.
We analyzed the spatial distributions and kinematics of Hα, [NII], and [SII] emission in
38 star-forming galaxies from our SINS/zC-SINF survey, 34 of which were observed with SINFONI
at high resolution using AO.
This was supplemented by kinematic data of 43 z ~ 1 – 2.5 galaxies from the literature.
None of these 81 galaxies is an obvious major merger. We found that the
kinematic classification of high redshift galaxies as "dispersion-dominated"
or "rotation-dominated" correlates most strongly with their intrinsic sizes.
Smaller galaxies are more likely "dispersion-dominated" for two main reasons:
1) The rotation velocity scales linearly with galaxy size but intrinsic velocity
dispersion does not depend on size or may even increase in smaller galaxies, and as such,
their ratio is systematically lower for smaller galaxies, and 2) Beam smearing strongly
decreases large-scale velocity gradients and increases observed dispersion much more for
galaxies with sizes at or below the resolution.
Dispersion-dominated galaxies may thus have intrinsic properties similar to the
rotation-dominated ones, but are primarily more compact, lower mass, less metal
enriched and may have higher gas fractions, plausibly because they represent an
earlier evolutionary state. A key implication of our results is that the derived fraction of
dispersion-dominated objects among massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1 – 2.5
is < 20%, lower than had been inferred based largely on seeing-limited observations.
These results appeared in Newman, S.F., et al. 2013, ApJ, 767, 104
RESOLVED STAR FORMATION PATTERNS AT 0.7 < Z < 1.5
Gallery of case examples from our sample of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5 in the HST CANDELS/3D-HST extragalactic survey fields. Below the three-color composites, we show the surface brightness distribution in the ACS I (0.8μm) and WFC3 H (1.6μm) band, as well as Hα line emission maps extracted from HST grism spectroscopy. The physical resolution in all maps is ~ 1 kpc. Blue, star-forming regions present in the I band generally dominate the Hα emission as well. Central peaks in surface brightness (i.e., "bulges") appear more prominently in the H band.
We analyzed the resolved stellar populations in a sample of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5,
with multi-wavelength broad-band imaging from CANDELS and Hα surface brightness profiles at the same kiloparsec
resolution from 3D-HST, two HST Treasury extragalactic surveys. Together, this unique data set sheds light on how the
assembled stellar mass is distributed within galaxies, and where new stars are being formed. We found the Hα morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I (0.8μm) band than in the WFC3
H (1.6μm) band, especially for the larger systems. In order to translate the Hα surface brightness
profiles to maps of the star formation rate, we derived a novel prescription for Hα dust corrections, which accounts
for extra extinction towards HII regions. We found the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass within galaxies, akin to the so-called "main sequence" of star formation established on a
galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation towards lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies.
Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced Hα equivalent widths, bluer colors, and
higher specific star formation rates than the underlying disk. Their Hα/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the
underlying disk, suggesting that the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity
that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely
limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.
These results appeared in Wuyts, S., et al. 2013, ApJ, 779, 135
SMOOTHER STELLAR MASS MAPS AND THE LONGEVITY OF STAR-FORMING CLUMPS IN HIGH-Z GALAXIES
(Left) Fractional contribution of stars younger than 10 Myr and 100 Myr to the total emission at rest-frame far-UV to J-band wavelengths, and to the total mass present in stars. Gray shades indicate Bruzual & Charlot (2003) models with constant star formation histories that started 0.5 Gyr, 1 Gyr and 2 Gyr prior to the epoch of observation. While the rest-frame V-band provides a better proxy for stellar mass than the UV part of the spectral energy distribution, it is still substantially biased towards the youngest generation of stars. Resolved color information is the key to constraining spatial mass-to-light ratio variations due to non-uniform star formation histories (or dust obscuration) across a galaxy, and recovering the true distribution of stellar mass. (Right) A comparison of structural parameters of concentration and galaxy (ir)regularity as measured on light maps of different rest-frame wavelength, as well as on stellar mass maps reconstructed using pixel-by-pixel stellar population modeling. In mass, galaxies are more compact and smoother than they appear in light, particularly at short wavelengths. This trend is observed over the full redshift range (0.5 < z < 2.5) considered in our analysis.
We performed a detailed analysis of the spatially-resolved colors and stellar populations of a mass-complete
(log(M∗/Msun) > 10) sample of
323 star-forming galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.5, and 326 star-forming galaxies at 1.5 < z < 2.5
in the ERS and CANDELS-Deep region of the GOODS-South extragalactic field, with very deep imaging from HST.
We modeled the 7-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels,
accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range.
We found evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies.
Large star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible on the inferred
stellar mass distributions. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief
(100 – 200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk.
Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens
efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.
These results appeared in Wuyts, S., et al. 2012, ApJ, 753, 114.
SHORT-LIVED STAR-FORMING CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF Z ~ 2 DISKS
The impact of strong feedback from young massive stars in high resolution cosmological numerical SPH simulations. Time sequence of gas surface density maps showing the disruption of a clump in our model (top), where t = 0 (not shown) is the formation time of the clump. To demonstrate the role of the vigorous wind, it is turned off at z = 2.03 (t = 22 Myr) and the alternative evolution of non-disruption, virialization, and migration is shown for comparison (bottom). The upper rightmost panel shows the mass of gas (solid lines) and young (<50 Myr) stars (dashed lines) for four clumps as a function of time since their formation. The magenta lines are for the clump highlighted on the top and the black for the clump highlighted on the bottom. The jump in mass of the green lines at t ≈ 60 Myr is a result of a merger between two clumps. The typical clump lifetime in the presence of winds is ≈50 Myr, and the mass of new-formed stars is approximately 10% of the maximum clump gas mass. The mass of new-formed stars internal to the clump decreases following the decrease of the gas mass, as these stars are dispersed out of the clump when the gravitation collapse of the gas is halted by the return to stable conditions with a Toomre Q parameter > 1.
Many observed massive star-forming z ~ 2 galaxies, including from our SINS/zC-SINF survey, are large
disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with luminous, kpc-sized star-forming clumps. In the framework of turbulent,
gas-rich, marginally unstable disks, such clumps form through fragmentation and eventually migrate towards the
center of the galaxies where they coalesce to form young bulges. However, our recent findings that clumps are also
launching sites of powerful gas outflows that could disrupt them rapidly (highlighted here)
raise important questions about their role in the evolution of early disks.
To investigate this issue, we used the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed
particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual
log(M∗/Msun) ≈ 10.5 galaxies in
log(M∗/Msun) ≈ 12 dark matter halos at
z ~ 2.
Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces
many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic
velocity gradients, high gas fractions (~ 50%), and high specific star formation rates (~ 1 Gyr−1).
In accord with other recent models, giant clumps of masses
Mclump ≈ 5 × 108 – 109
form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution.
The giant clumps are short-lived and disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate
to the galaxy centers.
These theoretical results are in line with our recent analysis of the resolved stellar light and mass distributions of large
samples of 0.5 < z < 2.5 star-forming galaxies, which revealed that bright star-forming clumps generally do not
correspond to local peaks in the stellar surface density distribution of galaxies, implying they may be rapidly destroyed —
plausibly via strong star formation-driven feedback — unless they migrate to the center within a dynamical timescale
(see highlight on "Smoother stellar mass maps").
These results appeared in Genel, S., et al. 2012, ApJ, 745, 11.
SINS/zC-SINF REVEALS THE ROOTS OF VIGOROUS STAR FORMATION-DRIVEN GAS OUTFLOWS AT Z ~ 2
Evidence for star formation-driven outflows from our deep, high-resolution SINFONI+AO observations of z ~ 2 galaxies. (Left) Broad and blueshifted wings in the Hα+[NII] line emission profiles are detected at, and around the location of several bright star-forming clumps in the z = 2.19 galaxy ZC406690. Insets show the spectra extracted at the position of bright Hα emission peaks along the star-forming ring, marked in the color-composite map of the Hα (green) and rest-frame UV (red) emission. The two maps at the bottom show the distributions of the emission in the narrow component tracing star-forming sites and of the broad underlying emission tracing outflowing gas. These observations were the first to provide direct evidence that the origin of the ubiquitous galactic winds long observed on large > 10 kpc scales around distant star-forming galaxies can be traced to extended regions within galaxies and most prominently from the actively star-forming clumps. (Top right) The co-averaged spectrum of clumps in five of the SINS/zC-SINF galaxies shows that the broad emission component is also present in fainter clumps, strengthening the evidence from ZC406690, the brightest galaxy of our sample. (Bottom right) By co-averaging the integrated spectra of 27 SINS/zC-SINF galaxies that do not host an AGN, we found a strong trend of increasing ionized gas outflow strength (quantifed by the ratio of the flux in the broad and narrow Hα components) with star formation rate surface density, with an apparent threshold at ~ 1 Msun/yr/kpc2, about 10 times higher than the wind breakout threshold observed in nearby starburst galaxies. The mass outflow rates inferred for the disks above this threshold are comparable to the star formation rates (and up to several times higher for bright clumps), implying that the outflows can efficiently drive large amounts of gas outside of the galaxies.
Our newest and deep SINFONI+AO observations of z ∼ 2 star-forming disks allowed us to trace
the origin of powerful outflows of ionized gas in non-AGN galaxies. The outflow signature, in the form of a broad
FWHM ~ 400 – 500 km/s and blueshifted Hα+[NII] emission component, had been first seen in the
co-added integrated spectrum of our initial SINFONI data obtained mostly at seeing-limited resolution
The higher resolution and sensitivity of our new AO-assisted data revealed that the outflows are spatially extended
across the galaxies over at least a few kpc, and most prominent in the immediate vicinity of giant, luminous
star-forming clumps. The inferred mass outflow rates from the clumps and the disks are comparable to, and
up to several times the star formation rates, implying that some of the clumps may lose much of their
initial mass and dissolve rapidly in the disk before they can migrate to the center of the galaxy.
In the galaxy with brightest clumps and highest S/N data, our analysis of line ratio diagnostics ([NII]/Hα and [SII]/Hα)
together with photoionization and shock models showed that the emission around the clumps is due to a
combination of photoionization from the newly-formed massive stars and shocks generated in the outflowing
gas component, with 5%–30% of the emission deriving from shocks.
Among the 27 SINS/zC-SINF non-AGN galaxies observed with SINFONI+AO, we find from co-averaged spectra in bins of global galaxy properties that the inferred gas outflow strength correlates most strongly with the averaged star formation rate surface density, with an apparent threshold for powerful winds around 1 Msun/yr/kpc2. Above this threshold, galaxies with log(M∗) > 10 have similar or perhaps greater wind mass-loading factors (η = dMout/SFR) and faster outflow velocities than lower mass galaxies, suggesting that the majority of outflowing gas at z ∼ 2 may derive from high-mass star-forming galaxies. The threshold at z ~ 2 is an order of magnitude higher than in nearby starbursts that drive galactic-scale winds. In the framework of a simple model where the wind break-out is governed by pressure balance in the disk, the threshold for strong outflows and the mass loading derived from our observations can be explained by the higher ISM pressure in turbulent, gas-rich, and highly star-forming z ~ 2 disks.
These results appeared in a series of three papers by Genzel, R., et al. 2011, ApJ, 733, 101,
Newman, S.F., et al. 2012a , ApJ, 752, 111, and Newman, S.F., et al. 2012b, ApJ, 761, 43
GALAXY STRUCTURE IN THE STAR FORMATION RATE – MASS PLANE FROM Z ~ 2.5 TILL TODAY
Surface brightness profile shape in the Star formation rate – Mass diagram. A structurally distinct "main sequence" of star-forming galaxies is clearly present at all observed epochs, and well approximated by a constant slope of 1 and a zeropoint that increases with lookback time (white line). While star-forming galaxies on the main sequence are well characterized by exponential disks, quiescent galaxies at all epochs are better described by cuspier, De Vaucouleurs profiles. Galaxies that occupy the tip and upper envelope of the main sequence also have cuspier light profiles, intermediate between main sequence galaxies and red and dead systems.
In parallel to our studies of galaxy kinematics with SINFONI, we analyzed how the structure of galaxies depends on
their current star formation rate and amount of assembled stellar mass. Our sample comprised 640,000 galaxies
at z ~ 0.1, 130,000 galaxies at z ~ 1, and 36,000 galaxies at z ~ 2. Size and profile measurements for all but the z ~ 0.1 galaxies were based on high resolution HST imaging, and star formation
rates were derived using a Herschel-calibrated ladder of star formation indicators. We found that a correlation between the
structure and stellar population of galaxies (i.e., a "Hubble sequence") was already in place as early as
z ~ 2.5. At each epoch, the galaxy population can be divided in three classes that coexist over more than an
order of magnitude in stellar mass, but differ in star formation activity. The majority of normal star-forming galaxies feature
shallow surface brightness profiles indicative of a disk-like nature. At fixed mass, they also tend to have the largest size.
More compact and cuspier morphologies are found for quiescent galaxies that already formed the bulk of their stars, and
reside below the "main sequence" of star formation. These results imply that the processes of star formation
quenching and bulge formation are intimately related. It is tantalizing to speculate that the rare population of starbursting
outliers above the main sequence may represent an intermediate evolutionary phase, linking the normal star-forming and
quiescent populations. While their star formation is peaking, we are witnessing the rapid build-up of a central cusp that is
characteristic for quiescent galaxies. Assuming all starbursting outliers will be quenched, simple duty cycle arguments
assign typical timescales ~ 100 Myr for this short-lived phase.
These results appeared in Wuyts, S., et al. 2011a, ApJ, 738, 106, and Wuyts, S., et al. 2011b, ApJ, 742, 96.
DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION OF GIANT STAR-FORMING CLUMPS IN Z ~ 2 DISKS
Two examples of z ~ 2 rotating disk galaxies with prominent star-forming clumps: zC406690 at z = 2.19 (left panels) and Q2346-BX482 at z = 2.26 (right panels). For each galaxy, the velocity field, velocity dispersion map, and spatial distribution of star formation map from our SINFONI+AO Hα observations at a resolution of ~ 1 – 2 kpc are shown in the top row, along with the spatial distribution of the Toomre Q parameter derived from the Hα line emission and kinematic maps. The clumps correspond to minima in the Q maps, with values below unity consistent with their having formed via gravitational instabilities in a turbulent, gas-rich disk. The quality of our data allowed us to investigate for the first time kinematic signatures of clumps from maps of the velocity residuals, i.e. subtracting the velocities from the best-fitting model disk to the observed velocity field (bottom row). Hα light and residual velocity profiles across the brightest clump in each of the galaxy shown here (arrows overplotted on the bottom row maps indicate where the plotted profiles were extracted) reveal measurable but modest velocity gradients.
New and deep SINFONI+AO observations of five z ∼ 2 star-forming disks allowed us for
the first time to constrain the properties of individual giant star-forming clumps to test empirically scenarios of their
formation and evolution. We found that the clumps reside in disk regions where the Toomre Q parameter is below
unity, consistent with their being bound and having formed from gravitational instabilities. The clumps leave a modest
imprint on the gas kinematics. Velocity gradients across the clumps are 10–40 km/s/kpc, similar to the galactic rotation
gradients. Given beam smearing and clump sizes, these gradients may be consistent with significant rotational support
in typical clumps. The brightest, extreme clumps may not be rotationally supported; either they are not virialized or they
are predominantly pressure supported. The velocity dispersion is elevated and fairly constant across the galaxies, and
increases only weakly with star formation surface density. The large velocity dispersions may be driven by the release
of gravitational energy, either at the outer disk/accreting streams interface where gas from the halo is infalling onto the
disk, and/or by the clump migration within the disk.
These results appeared in Genzel, R., et al. 2011, ApJ, 733, 101
PILOT HST NEAR-IR STUDY: STELLAR PROPERTIES OF CLUMPS IN SINS Z ~ 2 DISKS
Two of the SINS z ~ 2 disk galaxies, with evidence suggestive of radial variations in the evolutionary stage of clumps. For BX482 (left), a total of seven clumps are identified in the combined HST/NICMOS2 H band (1.6μm) and SINFONI+AO Hα maps. The ratio of Hα line flux to rest-optical continuum flux density from the H band data varies monotonically with the age of a stellar population. The ratios measured for the clumps reveal a trend whereby the clump closest to the center of BX482 is the oldest. For MD41 (right), seven clumps are also identified in the HST/NICMOS2 H band and HST/ACS I band (0.8μm) maps. The observed I – H colors of a stellar population correlate tightly with the stellar mass to rest-frame optical light ratio, also an age indicator. The clumps in MD41 tend to be redder at smaller radii, which could be due to older ages. These radial trends provide empirical support for the scenario in which clumps formed in turbulent, gas-rich disks migrate inwards, eventually coalescing and contributing to early bulge growth.
We studied the stellar properties of kpc-sized clumps identified in the six galaxies
observed as part of our Pilot program of near-IR (1.6μm) imaging follow-up with HST
of our SINS sample (see the highlight "A Pilot HST Study").
Typically, several clumps are identified in each galaxy, individual clumps contribute a few
percents of the galaxy-integrated rest-frame ~ 5000Å light, and the total contribution of
clump light ranges from around 10% to 25%. The typical clump size and stellar mass are
~ 1 kpc and ~ 10
These results appeared in Förster Schreiber, N.M., et al. 2011, ApJ, 739, 45
PILOT HST NEAR-IR STUDY: REST-FRAME OPTICAL MORPHOLOGIES OF SINS GALAXIES
Comparison, for six of our SINS galaxies, of the rest-frame optical continuum emission mapped with the HST NICMOS/NIC2 camera and of the Hα line maps and velocities obtained with SINFONI (left, middle, and right panels for each galaxy). The rest-optical maps have a resolution of ~ 1.5 kpc. The SINFONI maps of BX482 (top left series) were taken with AO at a similar resolution; the seeing-limited data of the other galaxies have a resolution of ~ 4 – 5 kpc. All galaxies are kinematically-identified disks except BX528, for which the reversal in velocities indicates it is a counter-rotating major merger. Clearly, even the regularly rotating disks exhibit prominent clumps in their rest-optical morphologies, and are indistinguishable from the major merger when applying quantitative criteria calibrated from local galaxies. Kinematics are necessary to classify disks and mergers reliably at high redshift. For the kinematically-identified disks, the HST rest-optical imaging reveals that the starlight follows exponential, or even shallower, disk- or ring-like profiles, similar to the Hα light, and confirms their large sizes.
Our SINFONI data of SINS galaxies provide spatially-resolved maps of the ionized gas
kinematics and distribution from Hα, tracing the current dynamical state and
star formation activity of the galaxies. For a more complete picture, however, it
is essential to also map the rest-frame optical continuum emission from the stellar
populations that make up the bulk of the stellar mass and contain a record of the
past history of galaxies.
In a pilot study, we obtained sensitive high-resolution near-IR imaging using the
NICMOS/NIC2 camera onboard HST of six z ~ 2 SINS galaxies, including five large
disks and one major merger.
The overall rest-frame ~ 5000Å of the galaxies is characterized by shallow profiles
in general (Sérsic index n < 1) with median half-light radius
of R1/2 ~ 5 kpc, and no significant differences
with the overall Hα surface brightness profiles. This suggests similar
global distributions of the ongoing star formation and more evolved populations
that dominate the rest-optical light.
On smaller scales of ~ 1 kpc, however, the rest-optical morphologies of the six
galaxies are significantly clumpy and irregular. Commonly-used quantitative
morphological parameters, calibrated based on z ~ 0 galaxy samples, fail to
distinguish the kinematically-identified major merger from the rotating disks
of our sample. Because high-redshift star-forming disks appear generally
irregular with giant kpc-sized clumps plausibly formed via gravitational instabilities
in gas-rich disks, spatially-resolved kinematics are necessary to unveil the
the true nature of distant galaxies.
These results appeared in Förster Schreiber, N.M., et al. 2011, ApJ, 731, 65
NEBULAR EXCITATION AND GAS-PHASES ABUNDANCES
"BPT diagrams" (Baldwin et al. 1981) relating the [OIII]λ5007Å/Hβ and [NII]λ6584Å/Hα line flux ratios, which provide diagnostics for the excitation mechanism of nebular gas in galaxies. The small grey dots show the distribution of the local galaxies taken from the SDSS survey, revealing the locus of purely star-forming galaxies on the left branch with decreasing gas-phase oxygen abundances towards lower [NII]/Hα and higher [OIII]/Hβ ratios, and of galaxies with shocks and AGN dominating the gas excitation on the right branch. In the left panel, the blue data points show source-integrated measurements from our SINS galaxies (and in green and orange, star-forming galaxies taken from selected published studies for comparison). The SINS galaxies tend to populate the region between the star-forming and AGN branches, suggesting that various excitation mechanisms contribute in different proportions to the global line emission or, possibly, different physical conditions are prevailing in non-AGN actively star-forming galaxies. Detailed case studies are needed to assess those in individual galaxies, as illustrated in the middle and right panels with D3a-15504, a large star-forming disk that hosts an AGN, and ZC-782941, another large disk with a small companion galaxy to the north-east. Maps of the Hα flux, [OIII]/Hβ, and [NII]/Hα (pixels with S/N < 5 are masked out) are shown at the bottom, and the distribution of ratios in individual pixels (colour coded as a function of spatial location as indicated in the top right insets) are plotted in the diagrams. For D3a-15504, the central AGN-dominated and outer star-forming disk regions separate clearly and the ratios suggest gas-phase oxygen abundances of ~ 1/3 to 1/2 solar in the outer disk. For ZC-782941, both integrated and spatially-resolved line ratios are consistent with pure photoionization in HII regions, with somewhat higher abundances. Interestingly, the [NII]/Hα peaks between the main part of the galaxy and the north-east companion, possibly reflecting a different ionization parameter and/or gas fraction.
For 15 galaxies from our SINS Hα sample, we observed the [OIII]λλ4959,5007 Å and Hβ line emission with SINFONI, complementing our Hα and [NII]λλ6548,6584 Å data obtained previously. Using in particular the [OIII]λ5007Å/Hβ and [NII]λ6584Å/Hα line flux ratios in the so-called "BPT diagram" (Baldwin et al. 1981; see figure above), we investigate the excitation mechanism of the nebular gas (photoionization by hot young stars in HII regions, shocks related to galactic outflows, and/or AGN) and the gas-phase oxygen abundances. Measurements of these ratios at z ~ 2, relying on four lines redshifted in the near-IR windows with many bright telluric emission lines throughout most of this wavelength regime, are very challenging and still scarce, and have been mostly obtained from integrated spectra. Results to date show that the integrated line ratios of high redshift galaxies tend to be offset from the locus of the local galaxy population in the "BPT diagram". This can be attributed to different physical conditions in distant star-forming galaxies, or to contributions from AGN and/or shocks. The global ratios of our SINS galaxies show in many cases such offsets. With the full spatial mapping afforded by SINFONI, we can take the next step and investigate the origin of the offsets using spatially resolved ratio maps in individual galaxies. Examples are shown in the figure above, illustrating the power of this approach.
These results appeared in Newman, S.F., et al. 2014 ApJ, 781, 21
SINS: LARGEST SURVEY OF KINEMATICS AND STAR FORMATION AT Z ~ 2
Velocity fields for 30 of the 62 galaxies of the SINS Hα sample, derived from the observed shift in wavelength of the Hα emission line across the galaxies. Blue to red colours correspond to regions of the galaxies that are approaching towards us and receding from us relative to the systemic or bulk velocity of each galaxy as a whole. The minimum and maximum relative velocities are labeled for each galaxy (in km/s). All sources are shown on the same angular scale; the white bars correspond to 1 arcsec, or about 8 kpc at z = 2. The galaxies are approximately sorted from left to right according to whether their kinematics are rotation-dominated or dispersion-dominated, and from top to bottom according to whether they are disk-like or merger-like as quantified by our kinemetry (Shapiro et al. 2008). Galaxies observed with the aid of adaptive optics, resolving details in the galaxies on scales as small as ~ 1–2 kpc, are indicated by the yellow rounded rectangles.
Upon completion of our SINFONI Guaranteed Time Observations at the ESO Very Large Telescope, we had collected spatially-resolved data of the ionized gas kinematics and star formation properties as traced by the Hα line emission of over 60 massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.5 – 2.5. This makes SINS the largest such survey to date based on near-infrared integral field spectroscopy. Our SINS Hα sample probes the z ~ 2 star-forming galaxy population over two orders of magnitude in stellar mass and star formation rates, with ranges of ≈ 3×109 – 3×1011 Msun and ≈ 10 – 800 Msun/yr. The ionized gas distribution and kinematics are resolved on spatial scales ranging from ≈ 1.5 kpc for adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations to ≈ 4 – 5 kpc for seeing-limited data. The Hα morphologies tend to be irregular and/or clumpy. About one-third of the SINS Hα sample galaxies are rotation-dominated yet turbulent disks, another third comprises compact and velocity dispersion-dominated objects, and the remaining galaxies are clear interacting/merging systems; the fraction of rotation-dominated systems increases among the more massive part of the sample. The Hα luminosities and equivalent widths suggest on average roughly twice higher dust attenuation towards the HII regions relative to the bulk of the stars, and comparable current and past-averaged star formation rates. Adopting the relation between star formation rate and gas mass surface density we presented in Bouché et al. (2007; see the comparison of star formation properties, of different galaxy classes below), the Hα-derived star formation rates imply high fractions of gas to dynamical masses Mgas/Mdyn ~ 30% (or Mgas/[Mstars+Mgas] ~ 45%). Combining the stellar, gas, and dynamical mass estimates, we find also high baryonic mass fractions (Mstars+Mgas) /Mdyn ~ 60%-80% within the central ~ 10 kpc or our SINS galaxies.
These results appeared in Förster Schreiber, N. M., et al. 2009 ApJ, 706, 1364
STACKING SINS: BROAD EMISSION LINES REVEALED IN HIGH-Z STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
Spatially-integrated average spectrum of 47 galaxies observed in our SINS program (left panel); the equivalent integration time of such a spectrum is 195 hours with VLT/SINFONI. High S/N detections are obtained on 5 important rest-frame optical diagnostic emission lines. Fitting the Hα-[NII] region (zoomed view in right panel, with horizontal axis in velocity units) reveals excess signal above the sum of three narrow lines (green, individual compoents are in blue). An additional broad velocity component is required to fit the spectrum (red, individual components are in blue).
Using a high S/N spectrum created by combining data from 47 SINS galaxies, we detect a broad emission component underneath the narrow Hα and [NII] lines. This feature is found in galaxies with and without a known active nucleus. It is preferentially found in the more massive and more rapidly star-forming galaxies, which tend to also be older and larger galaxies. The two possible explanations for such a feature are starburst-driven galactic winds and active supermassive black holes. If galactic winds are responsible for the broad emission, the luminosity and velocity of the emission line imply gas outflow rates comparable to the star formation rate (
These results appeared in Shapiro, K. L., et al. 2009 ApJ, 701, 955
FIRST DETERMINATION OF THE STELLAR MASS TULLY-FISHER RELATION AT Z ~ 2
The stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation at z ~ 2 as derived from the dynamical modeling of 18 of our SINS galaxies with prominent rotational features. The filled triangles are the z ~ 1.5 galaxies from our sample, while the filled circles are at z ~ 2.2. The open circle shows the z = 2.03 disk galaxy F257 observed by van Starkenburg et al. (2007). The error bars in the lower right corner represent the average fitting uncertainties of the model maximum velocity and of the stellar mass from the SED fitting to multi-wavelength photometric data. The solid line is the z = 0 relation from Bell & de Jong (2001), while the dashed line is the best fitting zero point to the z ~ 2.2 observed galaxies. The measured offset in log(M*/Msun) is 0.41 dex for a given rotational velocity, with a significance of 3.7σ.
We have modeled the dynamics of 18 star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2 using the Hα line emission as observed with SINFONI. The galaxies were selected from the larger SINS "Hα sample," based on the prominence of ordered rotational motions with respect to more complex merger-induced kinematics. The quality of the data allowed us to carefully select systems with kinematics dominated by rotation, and to model the gas dynamics across the entire galaxies using suitable exponential disk models. We obtained a good correlation between the dynamical mass Mdyn and the stellar mass M*, finding that large gas mass fractions (Mgas ~ M*) are required to explain the difference between the two quantities. We used the derived maximum rotational velocity Vmax from the modeling together with the stellar mass to construct for the first time the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation at z ~ 2. The tight Tully-Fisher relation connects the luminosity (or stellar mass) and maximum rotational velocity of disk galaxies, and was discovered for spirals in the nearby Universe by Tully & Fisher (1977). It is a key property for understanding the structure and evolution of these galaxies, as it links directly the luminosity (or mass) of the stars in disk galaxies with the angular momentum of the dark matter halos in which they reside. The relation obtained at high redshift shows a slope similar to what is observed at lower redshift, but we detected an evolution of the zero point, with galaxies at z ~ 2 rotating faster than those in the local Universe at a given stellar mass. This result is consistent with the predictions of some of the latest N-body/hydrodynamical simulations of disk formation and evolution, which invoke gas accretion onto the forming disk via "cold flows" associated with filaments in the dark matter cosmic web. This scenario is in agreement with other dynamical evidence obtained as part of our SINS survey, where relatively smooth but rapid gas accretion from the parent dark matter halo of galaxies is required to reproduce the observed properties of a significant fraction of the z ~ 2 massive star-forming galaxies.
These results appeared in Cresci et al. 2009 ApJ, 697, 115
MILLENIUM SIMULATION AND OBSERVATIONS: THE ROLE OF SECULAR EVOLUTION AT HIGH REDSHIFT
Distribution (shaded contours) of z ~ 2 halos in the dark matter accretion rate (left y-axis) versus halo mass plane. Major merger fractions are displayed (red contours), increasing as the specific dark matter accretion rate increases. Associated star formation rates (right y-axis) assume an effective star formation efficiency of 1 (between baryonic matter, taken to follow the assembly of dark matter, and star formation rate). SINS galaxies are indicated by blue symbols, grouped based on our disk/merger classification applying kinemetry. The star formation rates for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) are shown as horizontal lines in the upper part of the plot (their halo masses cannot be observationally well constrained). When a high effective star formation efficiency is assumed, the host halos of SINS galaxies lie in the region where most halos of their mass are expected to be concentrated. Furthermore, the expected mass accretion rates are sufficient to account for the observed star formation rates, and the predicted major merger fraction is small (< ~ 0.5), consistent with observations. The halo mass of SMGs is inferred from this analysis to be typically 1012.5 Msun.
We have used the Millennium Simulation to show that in a Lambda-CDM universe, even dark matter halos not undergoing major mergers have mass accretion rates that are plausibly sufficient to account for the high star formation rates observed in z ~ 2 disk galaxies as studied in our SINS survey. On the other hand, the fraction of major mergers in the Millennium Simulation is sufficient to account for the number counts of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), in support of observational evidence that these are frequently major mergers (e.g., from their dynamical properties). When following the fate of these two populations in the Millennium Simulation to z = 0, we find that subsequent mergers are not frequent enough to convert all z ~ 2 turbulent disks into elliptical galaxies at z = 0. Similarly, mergers cannot transform the compact SMGs/red sequence galaxies at z ~ 2 into present-day massive cluster ellipticals. We argue therefore that secular and internal dynamical processes must play an important role in the evolution of a significant fraction of z ~ 2 rest-UV/optically and submillimeter selected galaxy populations.
These results appeared in Genel et al. 2008 ApJ, 688, 789
FROM RINGS TO BULGES: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID SECULAR EVOLUTION IN STAR-FORMING DISKS AT Z ~ 2
Central mass concentration as a function of evolutionary stage for five z ~ 2 non-AGN disk galaxies from SINS (right panel). The central mass concentration is taken as the ratio of the dynamical masses within a radius of 3 kpc and of 10 kpc, derived from detailed modeling of the gas kinematics traced by the Hα line emission. The [NII]/Hα emission line ratio is a measure of the gas-phase chemical abundance, related to the evolutionary stage of galaxies. The properties of these disks suggest evolution driven by efficient secular processes in a globally unstable fragmenting disk, where massive clumps rapidly migrate inward due to dynamical friction and coalesce to form a young bulge. The trend between central mass concentration and [NII]/Hα is consistent with such a scenario. The maps at the top left show the Hα line flux and velocity field from our adaptive optics-assisted SINFONI data and the rest-frame 5000Å continuum emission from HST/NICMOS H-band imaging of BX482 (all at a resolution of 0.18" or 1.5 kpc), which appears to be in early stages of this "clump-driven" dynamical evolution sequence. Despite irregular morphology, the Hα kinematics show compelling signatures of disk rotation on large scales, along with small-scale perturbations likely induced by the massive clumps. The maps at the bottom left show again the Hα line flux and velocity field as well as the K-band continuum (rest-frame 6600Å) from SINFONI taken under excellent seeing conditions (0.5" or 4 kpc) of D3a-6004, which lies at the more evolved end of the sequence, with morphological and dynamical evidence for a nascent central bulge component.
In a detailed study of several of our best-resolved SINS galaxies, we found evidence for rapid secular/internal dynamical evolution taking place in massive early disks at z ~ 2 based on the morphologies and kinematics of the Hα line emission. Our Laser Guide Star AO and good seeing data show the presence of turbulent rotating star-forming outer rings/disks, plus central bulge/inner disk components, whose mass fractions relative to the total dynamical mass appear to scale with the [NII]/Hα line flux ratio (an indicator of the nebular gas chemical abundances) and the star formation age, both related to the global stellar evolutionary stage of galaxies. We propose that the buildup of the central disks and bulges of massive galaxies at z ~ 2 can be driven by the early secular evolution of gas-rich disks in formation. High-redshift disks exhibit large random motions. This turbulence may in part be stirred up by the release of gravitational energy in the rapid "cold" accretion flows along the filaments of the dark matter cosmic web. As a result, dynamical friction and viscous processes proceed on a timescale of less than 1 billion years, at least an order of magnitude faster than in present-day disk galaxies. Early secular evolution thus drives gas and stars into the central regions and can build up exponential disks and massive bulges, even without violent and dissipative major mergers. Secular evolution along with increased efficiency of star formation at high surface densities may also help to account for the short timescales of the stellar buildup observed in massive galaxies at z ~ 2.
These results appeared in Genzel et al. 2008 ApJ, 687, 59
KINEMETRY AT HIGH Z: CONFIRMATION OF A MAJORITY OF ROTATING DISKS AMONG SINS GALAXIES
Diagnostic diagram used to distinguish between regularly-rotating "disk-like" galaxies and systems undergoing major mergers (right). Our templates for each group, shown in blue and red respectively, have been analyzed as if they were observed at redshift z ~ 2 with the VLT/SINFONI set-up used for the SINS survey observations. The total kinematic asymmetry is defined as the sum in quadrature of the measured asymmetry in the velocity and velocity dispersion fields, and the probability distribution functions of this parameter for non-merging and merging systems (inset) is used to identify the boundary between unperturbed and merging systems (black line). Performing this analysis on SINS galaxies (black points), we find that the majority (8/11) of our best resolved systems are disk-like. Visual analysis of the velocity fields of SINS galaxies (shown at left) confirms the efficacy of our classification. The centers of stellar continuum emission in each system is indicated with a black cross, and the maxima and minima of the Hα velocities are indicated (in km/s).
We have developed a set of quantitative kinematic criteria, based on templates from observations of nearby galaxies and from simulations, which enable us to differentiate between systems with and without recent major mergers in the SINS sample. Applying these criteria to our highest-quality data, we find that ~ 3/4 of the resolved systems (with half-light radius larger than 4 kpc) display no dynamical evidence of having had a recent major merger. This quantitatively confirms earlier results from our survey, which provided qualitative evidence that there is a significant population of rapidly star-forming systems (with star formation rates ~ 100 Msun/yr) in regularly-rotating, unperturbed configurations. Our detailed analysis of the kinematics showed that indeed the high star formation rates in these z ~ 2 systems are not driven by major mergers. Instead, these young (typical stellar ages of ~ 500 million years) but rapidly evolving galaxies must have formed via smoother accretion processes, such as gas inflow along cold filamentary streams, or rapid series of minor mergers.
These results appeared in the Astrophysical Journal: Shapiro et al. 2008 ApJ, 682, 231
FIRST COMPARISON OF THE DYNAMICAL AND STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT GALAXY CLASSES AT Z ~ 1.4 - 3.4
Dynamical and star formation properties of galaxy samples at z ~ 1.4 – 3.4 : rest-frame UV- and optically-selected star-forming galaxies from the SINS survey (blue and red points, respectively), and bright submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) observed as part of a program to map the CO molecular gas line emission with millimeter interferometry (black points). The left panel shows the location of these samples in the size vs rotation velocity diagram, along with nearby spiral galaxies revealing the local velocity-size relation (grey crosses, from Courteau 1997). The right panel shows the surface density of star formation rate and gas mass for the high-redshift galaxies compared to that for nearby galaxies, including normal as well as active starburst and (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies (grey plus symbols and crosses, from Kennicutt 1998). For SMGs, the gas masses are inferred directly from the CO line fluxes (adopting the so-called "ULIRGs CO-H2 conversion factor"). For the SINS galaxies, they are derived from the dynamical masses from Hα kinematics assuming the average gas mass fraction of 40% found for the SMGs.
Combining the results from our SINS survey with SINFONI at the VLT with those from a study carried out with the IRAM/Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer, we made the first comparison of the dynamical and star formation properties of different classes of galaxies at redshift z ~ 1.4 – 3.4. Both surveys provide spatially-resolved information on the dynamics and distribution of gas closely related to star formation activity. The sample from SINS included 16 rest-frame UV and 16 rest-frame optically selected objects, probing the bulk of actively star-forming galaxies at the high mass end. The Hα emission line originating from HII regions was the tracer of gas kinematics and star formation. The millimeter interferometric observations targeted the CO line emission tracing molecular material from which stars form. This sample consisted of 13 bright submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) at similar redshifts, which represent the most luminous and most intensely star-forming systems in the early universe. These data were taken as part of a long-term IRAM program involving several members of our team. The SMG sample is highly complementary to the SINS sample, as it probes a more extreme regime of star formation in systems that are also often so severely obscured by very large amounts of dust that they are difficult to observe at shorter wavelengths.
The main results from this first comparison are the following.
(i) We find that rest-frame UV- and optically-bright (K < 20 mag) z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies are dynamically similar, and follow the same velocity-size relation as spiral galaxies in the nearby universe (left panel of the figure above). In contrast, the bright SMGs (S850μm > mJy) have significantly larger velocity widths and are much more compact, implying higher central matter densities by nearly an order of magnitude and lower angular momenta than for the SINS galaxies. Together with the spatially-resolved CO line mapping obtained for several of them showing strongly perturbed kinematics on scales of ~ 1 – 2 kpc, these results suggest that dissipative gas-rich major mergers are more frequent among the bright SMG population compared to more "normal" star-forming galaxies at high redshift.
(ii) Because of their small sizes and high densities, SMGs lie at the high end of a "Schmidt-Kennicutt" relation between matter or gas surface density and star formation rate surface density. The best-fit relation implies that the star formation rate per unit area scales as the surface gas density to a power ~ 1.7, suggesting that a "universal" Scmidt-Kennicutt law holds out to z ~ 2.5) (see rightmost panels of the figure above).
These results appeared in Bouché al. 2007, ApJ, 671, 303
(see also Tacconi et al. 2006, ApJ, 640, 228; Tacconi et al. 2008, ApJ, 680, 246)
DETAILED ANATOMY OF A YOUNG MASSIVE STAR-FORMING DISK AT Z = 2.38
Hydrogen recombination line emission of Hα of the massive star-forming galaxy BzK-15504 eleven billion light-years away (redshift z = 2.38). The observations were carried out with SINFONI in adaptive-optics mode, resulting in an angular resolution of ≈ 0.15 arcsec, or a mere 1.2 kpc (4000 light-years; indicated by the grey filled circle) at the redshift of BzK-15504. The top left panel is a color-composite map of the integrated Hα line emission, showing from blue to red the ionized gas that is blueshifted to redshifted relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The other panels are channel maps showing the spatial distribution of the Hα emitting gas moving at different velocities (given in km/s) relative to the systemic velocity.
Our finely resolved SINFONI data of BzK-15504 reveal a large galaxy about 16 kpc (53,000 light-years) across, with several prominent bright knots corresponding to luminous sites of active star formation. The galaxy appears to be a disk rotating with a maximum speed of 230 km/s, implying a large dynamical mass of ≈ 1011 Msun. The details of the kinematics further suggest that gas is being channeled via radial flows (outlined by the dotted line) towards a growing central bulge, and indicate the presence of a broad and high velocity component (bottom right panel) likely due to an outflow from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) powered by a massive accreting black hole. The high surface density of gas (~ 350 Msun/pc2), the high rate of star formation (~ 150 Msun/yr), and the moderately young stellar ages (~ 500 million years) suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation, and conversion to stars of an initially gas-rich protodisk. Surprisingly, there are no obvious signs for a recent major merger event, which would have led to the rapid mass assembly and triggerred the intense star formation activity. This may suggest that BzK-15504 assembled its mass via smoother infall such as in the "cold flow" accretion mechanism, or through a series of minor mergers. BzK-15504 could later evolve into a massive elliptical galaxy.
These results appeared in Genzel et al. 2006, Nature, 442, 786
DYNAMICAL EVIDENCE FOR LARGE MASSIVE ROTATING DISKS AT Z ~ 2
Spatial distribution (top row) and motions (bottom row) of the Hα line emitting gas in six large star-forming galaxies at cosmological redshifts z ~ 2. The observations were carried out with SINFONI in seeing-limited mode, under typical seeing conditions of ≈ 0.5–0.6 arcsec, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 4–5 kpc at the redshift of the sources. The maximum velocities, relative to the systemic velocity, are given in km/s for each source.
During the first year of the SINS survey, our SINFONI observations revealed many large star-forming galaxies with irregular and clumpy morphologies in Hα line emission but smooth and regular velocity fields. For the majority of the larger systems, the ionized gas kinematics exhibit monotonic variations across the galaxy with steepest gradient along the geometric/kinematic major axis (e.g., the four leftmost galaxies in the figure above) and in three of them the velocity profile flattens at large radii. These features are expected signatures of ordered rotation in a disk-like structure, and provided key dynamical evidence for the existence of large massive rotating disks at z ~ 2. The case of BzK-15504, observed with adaptive optics but otherwise similar in its overall properties, offers an unparalleled view into one such system, with 3–4 times finer detail. Interestingly, Q1623-BX663 is probably more consistent with an advanced merger or disturbed spiral hosting an AGN responsible for the high velocity dispersion measured at the location of the dominant Hα peak off the center. For Q1623-BX528, the reversal in velocities along the major axis could be indicative of a counter-rotating merger.
The discovery of so many massive rotating disks among our SINS sample was surprising. In view of the higher rate of major mergers at high redshift, we had expected that most of the larger systems would exhibit more complex gas motions. From a more detailed analysis of the best resolved cases, it appears that their disks are quite turbulent, probably fairly gas-rich, and likely unstable to global star formation and fragmentation. As some simulations of the evolution of gas-rich galactic disks suggest, the star-forming clumps could later sink towards the gravitational center by dynamical friction to form a central bulge on a timescale of order of 1 billion years. This could provide a mechanism whereby some of the young disks uncovered in the SINS survey evolve into elliptical galaxies or disk galaxies with a dominant massive bulge, as those observed in the present-day Universe.
These results appeared in Förster Schreiber et al. 2006, ApJ, 645, 1062