Agreement on eROSITA data reached
German scientists ready for the hunt on dark energy
The eROSITA X-ray telescope, which is currently under construction by an international consortium led by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) will perform the first imaging all-sky survey in the medium energy X-ray range up to 10 keV with an unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. With the data collected, astronomers will be able to detect and measure not only some 500 000 active stars but also about 100 000 groups and clusters of galaxies and up to three million new, distant supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei.
The agreement between the German MPE and the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), the two main scientific partners of eROSITA, specifies that German astronomers from all the institutions involved will receive data covering 20 000 square degrees of sky - an area hundreds of times bigger than the largest area observed with the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope. While this telescope and its sister, the Chandra X-ray space observatory, are designed for deep observations of tiny areas, eROSITA was specifically developed for large scale observations.
"With eROSITA we will be able to systematically probe the Universe in depth, we can look back in time to where the Universe was half its current age," explains Peter Predehl, who is leading the eROSITA project team. "While the previous X-ray all-sky survey by ROSAT was mainly concerned with the local Universe, eROSITA will enable us to map out the large scale structure in the Universe."
Analysing the large-scale structure evolution as traced by the hot, X-ray emitting gas, will allow the scientists to put new constraints on the mysterious dark energy, which is causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. While the discovery of this effect was honoured by the Nobel Prize in physics this year, the nature of dark energy remains an open question.
However, as the attendance by astronomers from many fields at the first dedicated eROSITA conference in Germany shows, the project meets with general and broad interest from the international scientific community. Talks and discussions range from prospects for observing galaxy clusters and using them as cosmological probes, to distant active galactic nuclei, black holes and neutron stars in our galaxy, X-ray binary stars and other compact objects. Several collaborations have been proposed with ground-based telescopes observing large areas of the sky in other wavelengths that already do and will provide crucial complementary data to the eROSITA survey.
"At the eROSITA conference, many recent scientific developments are presented that could directly lead to a number of interesting collaborations," says Andrea Merloni, eROSITA project scientist. "The project is now mature enough that we can present it to the international community and listen to their ideas about the scientific potential of eROSITA. Indeed, the interested we generated exceeds our expectations."
The manufacturing of the hardware for eROSITA runs like clockwork: The complete telescope structure has arrived at MPE and for the seven mirror modules (plus one spare), one of the 54 nested mirror shells is integrated per day. Testing shows that all mirrors are of excellent quality. Assembly of the complete hardware including the new X-ray detector system developed at MPE is scheduled for the end of 2012 and then eROSITA will be launched 2013 from Baikonur as the primary instrument on-board the Russian "Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma" (SRG) satellite and placed in an L2 orbit. The first four years of observations will be dedicated to an all-sky survey followed by three years of pointed observations, for which scientists from all over the world can submit proposals.
First eROSITA International Conference: Mapping the Structure of the Energetic Universe
eROSITA Web page
Important academic and private partners in the eROSITA project:
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching; Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching; Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Bonn (DLR); ROSKOSMOS, Moskau, Russland; Space Research Institute (IKI), Moskau, Russland; Dr.-Remeis-Sternwarte Bamberg, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg; Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg; Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik der Universität Tübingen (IAAT); Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP); Universitätssternwarte München; Argelander Institut, Universität Bonn; Exzellenzcluster Universe, München; RUAG Space GmbH, Wien, Österreich; Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen; Lavochkin Association, Moskau, Russland; Invent GmbH, Braunschweig; Kayer-Threde GmbH, München; HPS GmbH, München; Media Lario Technologies, Bosisio Parini, Italien; Tecnotron GmbH, Weißensberg; pnSensor GmbH, München; IABG mbH, Ottobrunn; Laserjob GmbH, Grafrath; Euro Heat Pipes, Nivelles, Belgien.
last update 2012-06-12 by H. Steinle